Bu kaydın yasal hükümlere uygun olmadığını düşünüyorsanız lütfen sayfa sonundaki Hata Bildir bağlantısını takip ederek bildirimde bulununuz. Kayıtlar ilgili üniversite yöneticileri tarafından eklenmektedir. Nadiren de olsa kayıtlarla ilgili hatalar oluşabilmektedir. MİTOS internet üzerindeki herhangi bir ödev sitesi değildir!

Yabancılara Türkçe öğretiminde metindilbilimsel ölçütler çerçevesinde bir sadeleştirme denemesi:Sait Faik Abasıyanık, “Meserret oteli”

Diğer Başlık: A simplification study within the framework of textlinguistics:Sait Faik Abasıyanık , “ Meserret oteli”

Oluşturulma Tarihi: 2012

Niteleme Bilgileri

Tür: Tez

Alt Tür: Yüksek Lisans Tezi

Yayınlanma Durumu: Yayınlanmış

Dosya Biçimi: PDF

Dil: Türkçe

Konu(lar): BİLİM, EĞİTİM,

Yazar(lar): BAKAN, Hande (Yazar),

Emeği Geçen(ler): AY, Sıla (Tez Danışmanı),


Yayınlayan: Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dilbilim Anabilim Dalı Türkçenin Eğitimi ve Öğretimi Bilim Dalı Yayın Yeri: Ankara Yayın Tarihi: 2012 Yayınlandığı Sayfalar: 320 s.


Dosya:
file show file
Görüntüle
download file
Kaydet

Anahtar Kelimeler



Özet

Yabancı dil öğretiminde, okuma-anlama becerisini geliĢtirmek üzere kullanılan metinlerin, özgün mü yoksa dil düzeyine uygun olarak sadeleĢtirilmiĢ mi olması gerektiği, tartıĢılan bir konudur. Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretiminde kullanılan özgün yazınsal metinlerin, dilsel, anlamsal ve yazınsal niteliklerinin sorgulanması ve metnin biçimsel, anlamsal, edimsel ve iletiĢimsel düzlemlerde irdelenmesi, ileri dil düzeyindeki öğreniciler tarafından gerçekleĢtirilebilir. Ancak temel ve orta dil düzeyindeki öğrenicilerin okuma eylemleri, gerçekte anlama ulaĢma amacı taĢımaktadır ve bu nedenle öğreniciler, özgün bir yazınsal metne hakimiyet sağlamak için yeterli dilsel edince ve artalan bilgisine sahip değildirler. Bu düĢünceden hareketle, tezin odak noktası, metindilbilimsel bir yaklaĢımla, yüzey yapı ve derin yapıdaki doğruluk ve tutarlılık değiĢtirilmeden, yazınsal bir metnin sadeleĢtirmesini gerçekleĢtirmek olmuĢtur. Tezin temel amacı, yabancılara Türkçe öğretiminde, okuma becerisinin kazandırılmasına yönelik olarak kullanılan yazınsal metinleri, bilimsel yöntemle çözümlemek ve sadeleĢtirmektir. SadeleĢtirme öncesinde, yazınsal metnin seçimi, metindilbilim bağlamında bir metin çözümlemesi, ardından yapılacak bilimsel nitelikte bir sadeleĢtirme süreci ve son olarak sadeleĢtirilen metnin okuma-anlama becerisine dönük olarak çeĢitli tekniklerle sınanması, bu çalıĢmanın çerçevesini çizmektedir. Buradan hareketle, Sait Faik Abasıyanık‟ın, kurgusal anlatı metinlerinden kısa öykü türündeki „Meserret Oteli‟ adlı eseri, önce metindilbilimsel ölçütlerden „bağlaĢıklık‟ ve „bağdaĢıklık‟ ölçütleri etrafında çözümlenmiĢ; sonra eser yine aynı ölçütler çerçevesinde, Türkçeyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen ve B1.1 düzeyindeki öğrenicilerine uygun biçimde sadeleĢtirilmiĢ ve son olarak kavramayı ölçmeye yönelik sorular oluĢturulmuĢtur.


RESUME


     It‟s a controversial issue among scholars and educationists whether authentic texts or the simplified ones should be used in foreign language teaching, in order to improve reading and understanding. Examining the linguistic, semantic and literary qualifications of the authentic texts that are used in teaching Turkish as a foreign language, probing the text on morphological, semantic, performative and communicative domains can be experienced by the learners of advanced level. However, the reading activities of the elementary and intermediate level learners substantially aim toprovide understanding the meaning and because of this reason it might be said that these learners don‟t have enough linguistic competence and background information to master an authentic literary text. From this point of view, simplification of a literary text, with a textlinguistic approach, without changing the accuracy and consistency on surface structure and deep structure is the focus of this study. The main purpose of the thesis is to academically analyse and simplify the literary works used in reading comprehension. Before the simplification phase, the text was chosen and analysed it in the context of textlinguistics and after this came the process of scientific simplification and testing the simplified text with several techniques of reading comprehension skills. Initially, an authentic short story
belonging to fictional narrative type of literary works called „Meserret Oteli‟ written by Sait Faik Abasıyanık was chosen and that authentic text was analysed according to textlinguistic criterias, mainly cohesion and coherence. Then, according to the same criterias, the authentic text was simplified for the B1.1 level learners and finally, some reading comprehension questions to test the reading comprehension were put forward.


İçindekiler

İÇİNDEKİLER.................................................................... I
GRAFİKLİSTESİ.................................................................VI
EKLER LİSTESİ.................................................................VII
TERİMLER LİSTESİ .......................................................... VIII
KISALTMALAR LİSTESİ.........................................................X

1.Giriş............................................................................... 1
1.1. Sorun ......................................................................... 6
1.2. Tezin Konusu ............................................................. .8
1.3. Tezin Amacı ve Önemi .................................................. 8
1.4. Araştırma Soruları ....................................................... 10
1.5. Sınırlılıklar ................................................................. 11

1.6. Yöntem ...................................................................... 11
1.6.1. Araştırmanın Modeli .................................................. 17
1.6.2. Evren/Örneklem ....................................................... 18
1.6.3. Veri Toplama Araçları ................................................ 18
1.7. Kavram ve Terimler ...................................................... 18
2. KURAMSAL ÇERÇEVE ..................................................... 21
2.1. Yabancı Dil Öğretiminde Sadeleştirilmişve Özgün Metin Kullanımı ....... 21
2.1.1. Sadeleştirilmiş Metin Kullanımı .................................... 22
2.1.2. Özgün Metin Kullanımı ............................................... 34
2.2. Yabancı Dil Öğretiminde Yazınsal Eserlerin Yeri ve Değeri ... 42
2.2.1. Yabancı Dil Öğretiminde Kullanılacak Yazınsal Metnin Seçimi.. 50
2.3. Geleneksel “Metin SadeleĢtirme Ölçütleri” ....................... 59
2.4. Metindilbilim Bağlamında Yazınsal Metne Bakış ................ 73
2.4.1. Bağdaşıklık ............................................................... 79
2.4.2. Bağlaşıklık ................................................................ 84
2.4.3. Metnin Küçük Ölçekli Yapısı ......................................... 86
2.4.3.1. Sözcüksel Bağlaşıklık ............................... ...............87
2.4.3.1.1. Yinelemeler ......................................................... 89
2.4.3.1.2. Eşdizimlilik .......................................................... 90
2.4.3.2. Dilbilgisel Bağlaşıklık .............................................. 91
2.4.3.2.1. Gönderimler ....................................................... 92
2.4.3.2.1.1. Artgönderim ve Öngönderim .............................. 93
2.4.3.2.2. Değiştirim .......................................................... 96
2.4.3.2.3. Eksilti ................................................................ 97
2.4.3.2.4. Bağlaçlar ......................................... ..................98
2.4.3.2.5. Koşutluk ............................................................ 99
2.4.3.2.6. Örtük Anlatım: Sezdirimler ve Çıkarsamalar ..........100
2.4.3.2.7. Örgeler ve izlek ................................................ 101
2.4.3.2.8. Dilbilgisel Eylem Zamanları ................................ 102
2.4.4. Metnin Büyük Ölçekli Yapısı ..................................... 104
2.4.4.1. Metnin Başlığı...................................................... 108
2.4.4.2. Metnin Konusu .................................................... 109
2.4.4.3. Metnin Amacı ...................................................... 109
2.4.4.4. Metnin Anahtar Sözcükleri ..................................... 111
2.4.4.5. Olay ve Durum Örgüsü .......................................... 112
2.4.4.6. Anlatıcı ve Metin KiĢileri ......................................... 112
2.4.4.7. Zaman ................................................................ 115
2.4.4.8. Uzam (Mekân) ..................................................... 117
2.4.4.9. Kesitleme ............................................................ 119

2.4.4.10. Anlatının Oluşumu ............................................... 121
2.4.4.11. Biçem ................................................................ 125
2.5. Yabancı Dil Öğretiminde Okuma-Anlama Becerisinin GeliŞtirilmesi ve Sınanması ....................................................................................... 128
2.5.1. Yabancı Dil Öğretiminde Okuma-Anlama Becerisi ......... 128
2.5.2. Okuma-Anlama Becerisinin Sınanmas......................... 136
2.5.2.1. Boşluk Doldurma AlıŞtırmaları ................................. 139
2.5.2.2. Doğru-Yanlış Alıştırmaları ....................................... 140
2.5.2.3. Eşleştirme Alıştırmaları .......................................... 141
2.5.2.4. Düzenleme Alıştırmaları ......................................... 142
2.5.2.5. Bilgi Transferi Tekniği ............................................ 143
2.5.2.6. C-Testi ................................................................ 143
2.5.2.7. Evet-Hayır Soruları ................................................ 144
2.5.2.8. Kısa Yanıt Soruları ................................................ 145
3. UYGULAMA VE YÖNTEM .................................................. 149
3.1. „Meserret Oteli‟ Adlı Öykünün Bağlaşıklık ve Bağdaşıklık Ölçütleri Çerçevesinde Çözümü...... 149
3.1.1. Küçük Ölçekli Yapı Çözümlemesi................................ 149
3.1.1.1. Sözcüksel Bağlaşıklık ........................................... 149
3.1.1.2. Dilbilgisel BağlaŞıklık ........................................... 160
3.1.2. Büyük Ölçekli Yapı Çözümlemesi .............................. 177
3.1.2.1. Metnin BaŞlığı...................................................... 177
3.1.2.2. Metnin Konusu .....................................................178
3.1.2.3. Metnin Amacı ...................................................... 179
3.1.2.4. Metnin Anahtar Sözcükleri ..................................... 181
3.1.2.5. Olay ve Durum Örgüsü ........................................ 182
3.1.2.6. Anlatıcı ve Metin KiŞileri ...................................... 183
3.1.2.7. Zaman ............................................................. 192
3.1.2.8. Uzam (Mekân) ................................................... 194
3.1.2.9. Kesitleme .......................................................... 195
3.1.2.10. Anlatının OluŞumu ............................................ 198
3.1.2.11. Biçem ............................................................... 201
3.2. „Meserret Oteli‟ Adlı Öykünün BağlaŞıklık ve BağdaŞıklık Ölçütleri Çerçevesinde SadeleŞtirmesi ...................................................................................... 210
3.2.1. Sözcüksel BağlaŞıklık .............................................. 211
3.2.2. Dilbilgisel BağlaŞıklık .............................................. 223
3.2.3. SadeleŞtirilmiŞ Öykünün, “Gönderim, DeğiŞtirim, Eksilti, Bağlaçlar, KoŞutluk ve Örtük Anlatım,” Görünümleri .................................................................... 225
3.3. Okuma- Anlamayı Sınamaya Yönelik Sorular ................. 287
3.3.1. BoŞluk Doldurma Alıştırmaları ................................... 287
3.3.2. Doğru-YanlıŞ AlıŞtırmaları .......................................... 287
3.3.3. EŞleŞtirme AlıŞtırmaları ............................................. 288
3.3.4. Düzenleme AlıŞtırmaları ........................................... 290
3.3.5. Bilgi Transferi Tekniği .............................................. 291
3.3.6. C-Testi ....................................................................292
3.3.7. Evet-Hayır Soruları ................................................... 293
3.3.8. Kısa Yanıt Soruları .................................................... 294
4. SONUÇ VE ÖNERİLER ...................................................... 297
5. EKLER............................................................................ 304
5.1. Ek 1 : Özgün Metin ...................................................... 304
5.2. Ek 2 : SadeleŞtirilmiş Metin ...........................................308
5.3. Ek 3 : Avrupa Dilleri Ortak Gönderim Düzeyleri Çerçevesinde Hedef Öğrenici Grubunun Bildiği Varsayılan Dilbilgisi Yapıları....... ...........................................................312
6.KAYNAKÇA....................................................................... 314
7. ÖZET/ RESUME ............................................................... 320


Açıklamalar



Haklar



Notlar



KaynakçaScovel T. (1991) "The Effect of Affect on Foreign Language Learning: AReview of The Anxiety Research in" E.K. Horwitz and D.J. Young,Language Anxiety, 101–108. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prientice Hall. PMid:1461816 Scovel, T. (1978), "The effect of affect on foreign language learning: AReview of the Anxiety Research",Language Learning, 28. Scarcella, R.C.,Oxford, R.L., (1992). The Tapestry of Language Learning.Boston: Heinle and Heinle. Sepehrband, M., (2000). The relationship between shyness and Iranianguidance school students' language achievement. Unpublishedmaster'sthesis, T.M.U., Tehran. Senemoğlu, N., (2005). Gelişim Öğrenme ve Ögretim KuramdanUygulamaya. Ankara: Gazi Kitabevi. Sarıgül, H., (2000). 'Trait Anxiety and Foreign Language Anxiety and theireffects on learners' Foreign Language Proficiency and Achievment'.Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi. Sarason, I. G., Sarason, B. R., (1991). Anxiety, cognitive interference andperformance. M. Booth-Butterfield içinde, Communicaton, Cognitionand Anxiety(s. 1-18). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0144341042000263006 PMid:11949904 Salim A. (2004). "Teacher's Role, Learner's Gender Differences, and FLAnxiety Among Seventh-Grade Students Studying English as aFL".Educational Psychology. 24. 711-721.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00419Rubin, K. H., Burgess, K. B.,Hastings, P. D. (2002),"Stability and socialbehavioralconsequences of toddler's inhibited temperament andparenting behaviours". Child Development, 73, 483–495. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3586011 Rubin, J., (1987), "Learner strategies: Theoretical assumptions, researchhistory and typology", A.L. Wenden ve J.Rubin (ed) içinde, s. 15-30. Rubin, J. (1975),"What the "good language learner" can teach us". TESOLQuarterly, 9, 41-51.Rossi-Le, L. (1989). Perceptual learning style preferences and theirrelatioship to language learning strategies in adult students of Englishas a second language.Unpublished doctoral dissertation, DrakeUniversity, Des Moines, IA. Rosenbaum, J. F., Biederman, J., Hirshfeld, D. R., Bolduc, E. A., Chaloff, J.(1991), "Behavioral inhibition in children: A possible precursor to panicdisorder or socialphobia". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 52 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1540-4781.00195 Rodriguez, M.,Abreu, O. (2003),"The stability of general foreign languageclassroomanxiety across English and French". The ModernLanguage Journal, 87(3), 365-368. Rodriguez, M. (1995). "Foreign language classroom anxiety and studentssuccess in EFLclasses". Revista Venezolana de LinguisticaAplicada, 1, 23-32. Robinson, E. H., Rotter, J.C., Fey, M.A.ve Vogel, K.R. (1992), HelpingChildren Cope with Fears and Stress, North Carolina: ERICCounseling and Student ServicesClearinghouse, 5-6. Rogers,J. (1989). Adults Learning. Great Britain:Open UniversityPress,p.38.PMid:2502053 Roberts,L.D.,Smith,L. M.,Pollock,C.M., (1999). In R. Crozier (Ed.), Shyness,development, consolidation, and change. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Riding, R., Rayner, S. G. (1998). Cognitive styles and learningstrategies:Understanding style differences in learning andbehavior. London: David Fulton. Richards, J., Rodgers, T.,(2002), Approaches and Methods inLanguageTeaching, Cambridge UniversityPress, Cambridge. PMCid:1738466 Riazi, A., Rahimi,M. (2003). Iranian EFL Learners' Pattern Of LanguageLearning Strategy Use. The Journal of Asia TEFL. c. 2. s. 1: 103-Richards, J., Platt, J., (1992), Longman Dictionary of Language Teachingand Applied Linguistics, Essex: Longman. Rastegar, M. (2002). "The effect of self-esteem, extraversion and risk-takingon EFL proficiency of TEFL students". Journal of the Faculty ofLettersand Humanities, 10, 9-35. Ramsay, R. W. (1971). Speech patterns and personality. In H. J. Eysenck(Ed.), Readings in Extraversion-introversion (pp. 429-443). London:Staple Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/16.2.233 Rampton, B. (1995). "Politics and change in research in applied linguistics".Applied Linguistics, 16, 233-256. Price, M.L. (1991). The subjective experience of foreign language anxietyinterviews with high-anxious students. In E.K. Horwitz, and D.J. young.(Eds.). Language Learning, 93-109. Preslley, M. vd., (1990). Cognitive Strategy Instruction That ReallyImproves Children's Academic performance.Columbia: The Popular Historical Novel. Phillips, E. M., (1990). The effects of anxiety on performance andachievement in anoral test of French. Unpublished DoctoralDissertation: the University of Texas,Austin. Pişkin, M.,(1999), Özsaygıyı Geliştirme Eğitimi, İlköğretimde Rehberlik,Ed: Yıldız Kuzgun, Ankara: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım Ltd. Şti. Piniel, K., (2006). Foreign language classroom anxiety: A classroomperspective. In M. Nikolov ve J.Horváth (Eds.), UPRT 2006: Empiricalstudies in English applied linguistics (pp. 39-58). Pécs: LinguaFrancaCsoport. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1977.tb00173.x Pilkonis, P. A., (1977a). "Shyness, public and private and its relationship to other measuresof social behavior". Journal of Personality, 45(4), 585-595.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002221949402700603PMid:8051509 Pintrich, P. R., Anderman, E. M., Klobucar, C. (1994), "Intraindividualifferences in Motivation and Cognition in Students With and WithoutLearning Disabilities". Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27 (6), 360- Pennycook, A., (1990),"Toward a critical applied linguistics for the 1990s".Issues in Applied Linguistics, 1, 8-28. Payne, K.,(2005). Understanding And Overcoming Shyness.http//www.counseling center.com (Kasım-2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00005-3 Paulhus, D. L., Duncan, J. D., Yik, M. S. M. (2002). "Patterns of shyness instudents of European and East-Asian heritage". Journal of Researchin Personality, 36, 442-462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1997.tb02343.x Park, G.P., (1997), Language learning strategies and English proficiencyin Korean university students. Foreign Language Annals, 30(2), 211-221.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2001.10162783 Pappamihiel, E. N., (2001). "Moving from the ESL classroom into themainstream: An investigation of English language anxiety in Mexicangirls". Bilingual Research Journal, 25 (1/2), 31-39. Page, M.R., (1989), "Shyness as a risk factor for adolescent substance use,Journal of School Health", c.59, ss.432-435. Özer,B., (2002), "İlköğretim ve Ortaögretim Okullarının EğitimProgramlarında ÖğrenmeStratejileri", Eğitim Bilimleri ve Uygulama.1, 1: 17-32. Öztürk, H., Çeçen S. (2007). "The Effects of Portfolio Keeping on WritingAnxiety ofEFL Students", Journal of Language and LinguisticStudies, Vol.3, No.2. Öztürk, T., (2003). Suggestions about reduced language anxiety caused bypersonal reasons.Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi. AtatürkUnivesitesi, Erzurum, pp.45-47. Öner, N. (1990). Sınav Kaygısı Envanteri El Kitabı. İstanbul: YÖRET Vakfı. PMid:3938519 Öner, N., Le Compte, A. (1985). Durumluk-Sürekli Kaygı Envanteri ElKitabı. İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları. Oxford, R. L., Talbott, V., Halleck, G. (1990). Language learning strategies,attitudes,motivation, and self-image of students in a universityintensive ESL program.Paper presented at the annual meeting ofInternational Teachers of English toSpeakers of Other Languages,San Francisco, CA Oxford, R., Yunkyoung C., Santoi L., Hae-Jin K., (2004),"Effect Of The Oxford, R., (1999). Anxiety and The Language Learner: New Insights. InJane, A. (Ed.), Affect In Language Learning. Cambridge UniversityPress, 58-67. Oxford, R., (1992). "Who are our students? A synthesis of foreign andsecond languageresearch on individual differences with implicationsfor instructional practice".TESL Canada Journal, 9, 30 – 49. Oxford,R., (1992/1993). "Language learning strategies in a nutshell: Updateand ESL suggestions", TESOL Journal, 2(2), s.18–22. Oxford, R. L., (1990).Language Learning Strategies. Boston,Massachusetts: Heinle and Heinle Publishers. Oxford, R., (1990). Language Learning Strategies-'What Every TeacherShould Know', Newbury House Publishers, New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00112 Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Bailey, P., Daley, C. E. (2000). "The validation of threescales measuring anxiety at different stages of the foreign languagelearning process: The input anxiety scale, the processing anxiety scaleand the output anxiety scale". Language Learning, 50 (1), 87-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524490 O'Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in secondlanguage acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nunan, D. (1991). Language teaching methodology. London:Prentice Hall.Oh, J. (1990). On the relationship between anxiety andreading in Englishas a foreign language among Korean universitystudentsinKorea.Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation: The University of O'Malley, J.M., Chamot, A.U., (1990), Learning Strategies in LanguageAcquisition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.55/3, 247–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3587650 Norton, B.,Toohey, K. (2001). "Changing perspectives on good languagelearners". TESOL Quarterly, 35(2), 307-322. Noguchi,T. (1991). Review of language learning strategy research and itsimplications.Unpublished bachelor's thesis,Tottori University,Tottori,Japan. Naiman, N., Frohlich, M., Stern, H. H., ve Todesco, A. (1978). The goodlanguage learner. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Na, Z.,(2007). "A Study of High School Students' English Learning Anxiety"The Asian EFL Journal, Volume 9, Number 3 22-34 PMid:17415983 Muhtar, S., (2006). Üstbilissel Strateji Egitiminin Okuma BecerisindeÖğrenci Basarısına Olan Etkisi, Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal BilimlerEnstitüsü(Yayımlanmamıs Yüksek Lisans Tezi), Ankara.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.70.4.589 Morris, L. W. (1979). "Predicting anxiety experiences and academicperformance intwo groups of students". Journal of EducationalPsychology,70(4), 589-594. Mori, S. (2007b). Language Learning Strategy Use For Learners ofJapaneese In Different Levels. Online Submission. 24-30. Meftah, S. (2002). The relationship between shyness, self-esteem andacademic achievement of second graders of secondary schools inTehran. Unpublished master's thesis, T.T.U., Tehran. Matthews, G., Deary, I.J.,(1998),Personality traits. Camridge: CambridgeUniversity Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1977.tb00599.x McCrosky, J. C. (1977). "Oral communication apprehension: A summary ofrecent theoryand research". Human Communication Research, 4,78-96. MacIntyre, P. D. (1999). Language Anxiety: A Review of Literature forLanguage Teachers. Young, D. J. (Ed.). Affect In Foreign Languageand Second LanguageLearning. Mc Graw Hill Companies, 24-43. Learning. 44. 283-305.MacIntyre, P. D., Noels, K. A., Clement, R. (1997). "Biases in self-ratings ofsecondlanguage proficiency": The role of language anxiety. LanguageLearning, 47,265-287. MacIntyre, P.D., Gardner, R.C (1991b)."Language anxiety: Its relation toother anxieties and processing in native and second languages". Language Learning, 41, 513-54.MacIntyre, P. D., Gardner, R. C. (1994). "The Subtle Effects of LanguageAnxiety on Cognitive Processing in the Second Language". Language MacIntyre, P. D., Gardner, R. C. (1991). "Methods and results in the study ofanxiety and language learning: A review of literature". Language http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1989.tb00423.x MacIntyre, P.D., Gardner, R. (1989). "Anxiety and second languagelearning": Toward atheoretical clarification. Language Learning,39, pp.251-275. MacIntyre, P. D. (1995). "How does anxiety affect second language learning?A reply o Sparks and Ganschow". The Modern Language Journal,pp.79,91-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1540-4781.00194 Levine, G. S. (2003). "Student and instructor beliefs and attitudes abouttarget languageuse, first language use, and anxiety: Report of aquestionnaire survey". ModernLanguage Journal, 87:3, 343 – 364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1992.tb01019.x Lawrence, B.,Bennett, S., (1992)."Shyness And Education: The RelationshipBetween Shyness, Social Class and Personality Variables inAdolescent". British Journal of Educational Psychology, 62. 257- Littlewood, W., (1984). Foreign and Second Language Learning; Lewinsky, H., (1941). "The nature of shyness". British Journal of Psychology, 32, 105-113. Lessard-Clouston, M., (1997), "Language learning strategies: An overview for L2 teachers", The Internet TESL Journal,http://www.aitech.ac.jp/iteslj/Articles/Lessard-Clouston-Strategy.htl Lessard-Clouston, M. 1997. Language Leaner Strategies: An Overview For L2 Teachers. The Interner TESL Journal. c. 24. s.3: 12.www.ites.lj.org http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00141-1 Leary, M. R., Herbst, K. C., McCrary, F. (2003). "Finding pleasure in solitaryactivities:Desire for aloneness or disinterest in socialcontact?"Personality and IndividualDifferences, 35, 59-68.PMid:8377098 Leary, M. R., Buckley, K. E. (2000). Shyness and the pursuit of socialacceptance. In: W. R. Crozier (Ed.), Shyness: Development,consolidation and change (pp.139-153). New York: Routledge. Leary, M. R., Kowalski, R.M. (1993), "The Interaction Anxiousness ScaleConstruct and Criterion-Related Validity," Journal of PersonalityAssessment, 61(1) 136-146.http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6101_10 Leary,M.R.,Dobbins,S.E. (1983), Social Anxiety, Sexual Behavior, andContraceptive Use. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (47)94-775. Leary, M. R. (1982). Social anxiety. In L. Wheeler (Ed.), Review CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.46.8.819 Leary, M.R., (1986), "The impact of interactional impediments on socialanxiety and self-presentation",Journal of Experimental SocialPsychology, c.22, ss122-135. Lazarus, R., (1991). Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory ofemotion. American Psychologist, 46 (8), 819-834.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0267190500002646 Larsen-Freeman, D., Long, M. H. (1991). An introduction to second languageacquisition research. London: Longman. Lantolf, J.,Pavlenko, A. (1995). "Sociocultural theory and second languageacquisition". Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 15, 108-124. PMid:14198969 Lado, R., (1964), Language Teaching: A Scientific Approach. McGraw-Hill, Inc, The USA. Kunt, N. (1997). Anxiety and beliefs about language learning: A study ofTurkish-speaking university students learning English in North Cyprus.Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Texas, Austin. Krashen, S. (1985). The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. London:LongmanPublishing. Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching. Oxford:Oxford University Press. Köknel, Ö. (1995), Korkular, Takıntılar, Saplantılar, İstanbul:.Altın KitaplarYayınevi, 19. Koralp, S. (2005). A Retrospective Analysis of the English LanguageLearning AnxietyExperienced by Prospective Teachers of English.Yayımlanmamış YüksekLisans Tezi. Kondo, D. S. and Ling, Y. Y. (2004). Strategies For Coping With (3), 258-265. Klassen, J. (1994). The language learning strategies of freshman Englishstudents inTaiwan: A case study. Master's thesis, California StateUniversity at Chico, CA. Kemple, K.M. (1995), "Shyness and self-esteem in early childhood", Journalof Humanistic Education and Development, c.33, ss. 173-182. Kaya, M. (1995). The relationship of motivation, anxiety, self-confidence, andextraversion/ intraversion to students' active class participation in anEFL classroom in Turkey. Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi. BilkentUnivesitesi, Ankara, pp.45-46. Kaya, Z. (1997), Yabancı Dil Öğretmenlerinin ÖğrenmeyiKolaylaştırıcılığı. GaziÜniversitesi Endüstriyel Sanatlar EğitimFakültesi Baskı Atölyesi, Ankara, ss. 1-65 Kaya, S., (2004). 'Yabancı Dil Öğrenimi ve Yaş İlişkisi'. YayınlanmamışYüksek Lisans Tezi. İstanbul: Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi. Katalin, P., (2006). Foreign language classroom anxiety: A classroomperspective. http://www.pte.hu/uprt/1.3%20Piniel.pdf. Karataş, Z., (2009). Psikodrama ile yapılan grup çalışmasının ergenlerinsürekli kaygıdüzeylerine etkisi, Çağdaş Eğitim Dergisi, 34(360):31-37ss. Demirel, Ö. (2010). Eğitim Sözlüğü, Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık, Ankara. Demirel, Ö.(2007). Yabancı Dil Ögretimi Dil Pasaportu Dil Biyografisi DilDosyası, Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık, Ankara. Demirel, Ö.(2005). Kuramdan Uygulamaya Eğitimde Program Geliştirme(7.b.). Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık,Ankara. Dalkılıç, N. (2001). An Investigation Into The Role of Anxiety in SecondLanguageLearning.http://www.sosyalbilimler.cukurovaom/p/articles/mi_mOFCR/is_4 Dulay, H., Burt, M., Krashen, S. (1982). Language 2. New York; OxfordUniversity Press.p.46. Daly, J. (1991). Understanding Communication Apprehension: AnIntroduction for Language Educators. E. K. Horwitz ve D. J. Young(Ed.), Language Anxiety: From Theory and Reseach to ClassroomImplications. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 3-13. Çelebi, M. D. (2006), "Türkiye'de Anadili Eğitimi ve Yabancı Dil Öğretimi",Erciyes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, C. 2, S. 21,s. 285- 307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2302(199801)32:1<37::AID-DEV4>3.0.CO;2-U Coplan, R. J., Coleman, B., Rubin, K. H. (1998). "Shyness and little boy blue:Iris pigmentation, gender and social wariness in preschoolers".DevelopmentalPsychobiology, 32, 37-44. Cohen, A. D. (2003). "The learner's side of foreign language learning: Wheredo styles, strategies, and tasks meet?",International Review ofApplied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 41(4), 279-292 Cohen, A. D. (1998). Strategies in learning and using a second language.London: Longman. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.41.2.330 Cheek, J. M. (1983). The revised Cheek and Buss shyness scale (RCBS).Unpublished manuscript, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA. Cheek, J. M., Buss, A. H. (1981). "Shyness and sociability". Journal ofPersonality and Social Pscyhology, 41(2), 330-339.Cheng, Y. S. (1998). "Examination of two anxiety constructs: Secondlanguage class anxiety and second language writinganxiety".Unpublished doctoral dissertation, the University of Texas, Austin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2004.tb02200.x http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1975.tb00115.x Chen, T.,Chang, G. (2004). "The Relationship Between ForeignLanguageAnxiety and Learning Difficulties". Foreign LanguageAnnals. 37. 279-290.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1989.tb03138.x Chastain, K. (1975). "Affective and ability factors in second languageacquisition", Language Learning, 25, 153-161. Chamot, A. U., Kupper, L. (1989). "Learning strategies in foreign languageinstruction"Foreign Language Annals, 22, 13-24. Chamot, A. U. vd. (1999). The Learning Strategies: Handbook. New York:Longman.Texas, Austin. Chamot, A. U. (2011). How to Teach Learning Strategies to EnglishLanguageLearners.http://www.longman.com/ae/keys_to_learning/content.html Chamot, A. U. (2004). Sailing the 5 Cs with Learning Strategies: A ResourceGuide for Secondary Foreign Language Educators.http://www.nclrc.com/guides/eils http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6185(02)00124-X Chavira, D. A., Stein, M. B.,Malcarne, V. L. (2002). "Scrutinizing therelationship between shyness and social phobia". Anxiety Disorders,16, 585-598. Cheng, J. C. (2005). The relationship to foreign language anxiety of oralperformance achievement, teacher characteristics, and in-classactivities. Unpublished masterthesis. Ming Chuan University,Taoyung,Taiwan. Chen, Y. H. (2002). The relationship between foreign language anxiety andEnglish proficiency of EFL learners in Taiwan. Unpublished masterthesis. NationalKaohsiung First University of Science andTechnology,Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Celce-Murcia, M.(2001). Teaching English as a Second or ForeignLanguage, Thomson Learning, London, 2001. Carducci, J.B., Zimbardo, G.F. (1995). "Are you shy?".Psychology Today, Casado, M. A., Dereshiwsky, M. I. (2001). Foreign language anxiety ofuniversity students. College Student Journal, 35(4), 539-551. Carducci, J.B. (2000). "Shyness: The new solution". Psychology Today, 33,(1), 38-46. Crozier, W.R. (2001), Understanding Shyness: PsychologicalPerspectives, Newyork: Palgrave Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.41.2.330 Cheek, J.M., Buss, A.H. (1981). "Shyness and sociability". Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 41, 330-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1982.tb00521.x Busch, D. (1982). "Introversion-extraversion and the EFL proficiency ofJapanese students". Language learning, 32, 109-132.Clement, R. (1980). Ethnicity, contact and communicative competence in asecondlanguage. In H. Giles, W. P. Robinson & P. M. Smith (Eds.),Language: Socialpsychological perspectives (pp.147-154), Oxford:Pergamon http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.50.3.559 Buss, A. H. (1986). Social Behavior And Personality, Hillsdale, N.J.:Erlbaum. Brown, D.H. (2000). Teaching by Principles, Longman Publishers, New York. Buss, A. H. (Ed.). (1980). Self-consciousness and social anxiety. SanFrancisco: W. H.Freeman and Company. PMCid:39095 Brown, .D. H. (1994), Principles of Language Learning andTeaching,Prentice-Hall International (UK) Limited, London Bradfield, M. (1996). "Successful female adult language learners: theirstrategy use in second language learning". Yayımlanmamış yükseklisans tezi. University of Victoria.http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199307000-00016PMid:8340303 Biederman, J., Rosenbaum, J. F., Bolduc-Murphy, E. A., Faraone, S. V.,Chaloff, J., Hirshfeld, D. R., Kagan, J. (1993). "A 3-year follow-up ofchildren with and without behavioral inhibition". Journal of theAmerican Academy of Child andAdolescent Psychiatry,32(4), 814-821.Beck, A.T., Emery, G. (1985).Anxiety Disorders and Phobias: ACognitivem Perspective, New York: Basic Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(85)90019-1 Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., Dancu, C. V. (1985). "Physiological, cognitiveand behavioral aspects of social anxiety". Behaviour Research andTherapy, 23, 109-117. Batumlu, D. Z., Erden, M. (2007). "The relationship between foreign language anxiety and English achievement of Yıldız Technical Unıversity Schoolof foreignlanguages preparatory students", Eğitimde Kuram veUygulama, 3 (1):24 – 38. Balcı, T. (1993). Dil Öğreniminin Biyolojik Temelleri.ttp://www.cu.edu.tr/insanlar/burcihan/biyolojik.html Awan,R. vd.,(2010). An Investigation Of Foreign Language ClassroomAnxiety And Its RelationshipWith Students' Achievement. Journal ofCollege Teaching and Learning-November 2010 Volume 7, Bacanlı, H. (1997). Eğitim Psikolojisi. İstanbul: Alkım Yayınları. Auerbach, E. R. (1997). "Family literacy". In V. Edwards ve D. Corson (Ed.),Encyclopedia of language and education: Vol. 2. Literacy (pp. 153-161). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic. Aydın, T. (2003). "Language Learning Strategies Used By Turkish HighSchool Students Learning English". Yüksek Lisans Tezi. İstanbulÜniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. Aydın, B. (2001). Why Do Turkish Learners Feel Anxious While Speaking English inthe Classroom Anadolu Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, bahar, Cilt 11. Aydın, B. (1999). "Konuşma ve Yazma Derslerinde Yabancı DilÖğrenimindeki Kaygı Nedenleri". Yayınlanmamış doktora tezi. AnadoluÜniversitesi, Eskişehir, pp.112-116 Ay, S., (2010). Young adolescent students' foreign language anxiety inrelation to language skills at different levels. Retrieved March 20, 2011fromhttp://www.sosyalarastirmalar.com/cilt3/sayi11pdf/ay_sila.pdf. Atay, D. ve Kurt, G. (2007). "The effects of peer feedback on the writinganxiety of prospective Turkish teachers of EFL". Journal of Theory Practice in Education, 3 (1):12 – 23. Atay, D. ve Kurt, G. (2006). "Prospective teachers and L2 writing anxiety".Asian EFL Journal, Volume 8, Issue 4, Article 5. Arnold, J., Brown, H. D. (1999). A map of the terrain. In J. Arnold (Ed.),University Press. Antony, M.M. ve Swinson, R.P. (2000). The Shyness and Social AnxietyWorkbook.USA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc. Anthony, E. (1963). "Approach, method, and technique". English LanguageTeaching,17(1), 63-67. APA, (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4.Baskı, (DSM-IV), Washington DC, American Psychiatric Association. Antikacıoğlu, S. (1988). 'Duyuşsal Faktörlerin Türk Yetişkinlerde İngilizceBaşarısındaki Rolü'. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi. İstanbul:Boğaziçi Üniversitesi. Altan, M. Z. (2004). Nationality And Language Learning Strategies Of ELTMajorUniversity Students. Asian EFL Journal. http://www.asianefljournal.com\Article_3_June_mza_nlls.2004.pdf [14.10.2011] Allwright, D. ve Bailey K.M. (1991). Focus on the Language Classroom. AnIntroduction to Classroom Research for Language Teachers.Cambridge: CUP, pp.144,175 Al-Otaibi, G. N. (2004). "Language learning strategy use among Saudi EFLstudents, and its relationship to language proficiency level, gender Pennsylvania. Aitchison, J.,(1992), Linguistics–Teach Yourself,Hodder & Stoughton Ltd,London, Sydney, Auckland. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1994.tb02026.x Aida, Y., (1994). "Examination of Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope's construct offoreign language anxiety: The case of students of Japanese". ModernLanguage Journal. 78. 155-68. Schmidt, L.A.,(1999), "Frontal brain electrical activity in shyness andsociability", Psychological Science10, pp. 316–320.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00161 Schmidt, L. A., Tasker, S. L. (2000). Childhood shyness: Determinants,development,and 'depathology'. In W. R. Crozier (Ed.), Shyness:Development, consolidationand change (pp. 30-46). New York:Routledge. Schlenker, B. R., Leary, M. R. (1982), "Social Anxiety And Self Presentation:669. Scholmerich, A., Broberg, A. G., Lamb, M. E. (2000). Precursors of inhibitionandshyness in the first year of life. In W. R. Crozier (Ed.), Shyness:Development, consolidation and change (pp. 47-63). New York:Routledge.PMid:10671774 Skehan, P., (1990),Individual Differences in Second Language Learning.London:Edward Arnold Publishing. Snyder, C. R., Smith, T. W., Augeli, R. W., Ingram, R.E., (1985), "On the selfservingfunction of social anxiety: Shyness as a self-handingappingstrategy", Journal of Personality, c.4, ss.970-980. Sparks, R., Ganschow, L., Artzer, M., Siebenhar, D., Plageman, M. (2004),"Foreign Language Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Academic Skills, Affective Characteristics and Proficiency". Foreign Language, 37 (2), 263-279. Spere, K.A., Schmidt, L.A., Honey, L.A., Martin, S. (2004), "Expressive andreceptive language skills of temperamentally shy preschoolers", Infantand Child Development, c.13, ss.123-133. Subaşı, G. (2000). "Etkili Öğrenme: Öğrenme Stratejileri," Milli EgitimDergisi, sayı: 146, Subaşı, G. (2003). Gelişim ve Öğrenme, Anı Yayıncılık, 2. Baskı, Ankara.PMid:10738888 Stern, H.H.,(1992), Issues and Options in Language Teaching.Oxford:OUP. Stern, H. H. (1975). "What can we learn from the good languagelearner?"The Canadia Modern Language Review, 31, 304-318. Şimşek, N. Karadeniz, Ş. (2004), Gelişim ve Öğrenme, Gündüz Egitim veYayıncılık, 2. Baskı, Ankara. Taeko, O., Manalo, E., Greenwood, J. (2004). "The Influence of Personalityon the Oral Performance of Japanese Speakers of English". AppliedCognitivePsychology, 18, 841-855.194 Taş,Y., (2006).Kaygı Nedir?Bilkent Üniversitesi Öğrenci Gelişim ve DanışmaMerkezi. Theall-Honey, L. A., Schmidt, L. A. (2006). "Do temperamentally shy childrenprocessemotion differently than nonshy children? Behavioral,psychophysiological, andgender differences in reticent preschoolers".Developmental Psychobiology, 48(3),187-196.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dev.20133PMid:16568410 Tübitak, (2011). Utangaçlık hayat boyu değişmeyen bir karakter özelliği mi? Tübitak Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi–Psikoloji köşesi,Erişim tarihi:20 Ekim2011http://www.biltek.tubitak.gov.tr/gelisim/psikoloji/haberler.htm#utangaclik Tsai-Yu, C. Goretti B. Y. (2004). "The Relationship between Foreign Anxiety and Learning Difficulties". Foreign LanguageAnnals, 37 (2), 279-290.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2004.tb02200.x Tsui, A.B.M., (1996).Reticence and Anxiety in Second Language Learning. InBailey,K. M. ve Nunan, D. Voices From The Language Classroom,Cambridge:CUP, pp.145-167. Truitt, S. (1995). Anxiety and beliefs about language learning: A study ofKoreanuniversity students learning English. Unpublished doctoraldissertation, theUniversity of Texas, Austin. Vahid, S., Kashani, A.F., (2011). "The Effect of English Learning Anxiety onIranian High-School Students",BRAIN. Broad Research in ArtificialIntelligence and Neuroscience, Volume 2, Issue 3. Vancı, O.Ü. (1996). Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety: How Can We GetOur Students to Participate More? Paper presented on theInternational ELT Conference From Diversity to Synergy. Ankara,Turkey, pp.1-19. Validy, M. (1998). The relationship between introversion-extraversion and theuse of communication strategies in EFL students' writings.Unpublished master's thesis, TMU, TehranWang-Fillmore, L. (1979). Individual differences in second languageacquisition. In C. Fillmore, D. Kempler,ve W. Wang (Eds.), Individualdifferences in languageability and language behavior (pp. 203-228).New York: Academic Press. Wharton, G. (1997). Language learning strategy use in a multilingual setting:studyof university students of Japanese and French in Singapore.he Universityof Texas at Austin. Weinstein, C. E., Husman, J., Dierking, D. R. (2001). Self-regulationinterventions with a focus on learning strategies. In M. Boekaerts, P.R. Pintrich ve M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of selfregulation(pp.727-747). San Diego: Academic Press. Weinstein, Claire E., Richard E., Mayer. (1986). The Teaching of New York: Maccmillan Company: 315–327. Weinstein, C. E., Jeff D. Macdonald. (1986). Why Does A SchoolPsychologist Need to Know about Learning Strategies. Journal ofSchool Psychology. c. 24. s. 3: 257-265. Weinstein, C. E.(1988). Assessment and Training of Student LearningStrategies. Learning Strategies and Learning Styles. ed. Ronald R.Schmeck. New York: Plenum Press: 291-316. Weinstein, C. E., Hume, L. M., (1998). Study Strategies for LifelongLearning. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10296-000 Wenden, A.L., (1987), "Conceptual background and utility", A.L. Wenden andJ.Rubin (ed) Learner Strategies in Language Learning, s.3-13.London: Prentice Hall Int. Wenden, A.L., Rubin, J., (1987), Learner Strategies in LanguageLearning, London: Prentice Hall Int.PMid:12159546 Wu, J. Y. (2005).The correlation between language anxiety and Englishspeaking proficiency for the 3rd-graders and 6th-graders in anelementary school. Unpublished master thesis. National Cheng KungUniversity, Tainan, Taiwan. Yalçın, E., (2003). An analysis of the relationship between the use ofgrammar learning strategies and student achievement at EnglishPreparatory school at the University of Gaziantep.Yayımlanmamışyüksek lisans tezi, Gaziantep: Gaziantep Üniversitesi, Sosyal BilimlerEnstitüsü.PMCid:222905 Yan, J. X., Horwitz, E.K., (2008). "Learners' perceptions of how anxietyinteracts with personal andinstructional factors to influence theirachievement in English: A qualitative analysis of EFL learners inChina". Language Learning, 58 (1), 151-183.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2007.00437.x Yang, N. D., (1992). Second language learners' beliefs about languageearning and their use of learning strategies: A study of collegestudents of English in Taiwan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, theUniversity of Texas at Austin. Yang, N. D., (2003). "Integrating Portfolios Into Learning Strategy-BasedInstruction For EFL College Students". IRAL, International Reviewof Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching. c. 41. s. 4. 293-325. Young, D. J., (1986). "The Relationship Between Anxiety and ForeignLanguage Oral Proficiency Ratings". Foreign Language Annals. 23.539-553.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1986.tb01032.x Yüksel, G., (2003),"Üniversite ÖğrencilerininUtangaçlık Düzeylerini EtkileyenFaktörler". Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. Ankara: GEF yayını Yüksel, İ., Kurt, M., (2003). Durumluk-sürekli kaygı düzeyi ile iş doyumudüzeyiarasındaki ilişkinin analizi, Türkiye Sosyal AraştırmalarDergisi, 7 (1): 33-45. ss. Zengin, B., Seven, M.A., (2007), İkinci dil öğrenme stratejileri ve algılamaFarklılıkları,Erzincan Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi Cilt-Sayı:9-2. Zimbardo, P.G.,(1986), The Standford Shyness Project, New York:PlenumPMid:3745614


Atıf Yapanlar

Gözat Sayfasına Dön

 

Sosyal Medya ve Araçlar

İstatistikler

  • Kayıt
    • Bu ay: 10
    • Toplam: 25530
  • Online
    • Ziyaretçi: 125
    • Üye: 1
    • Toplam: 125

Detaylı İstatistikler